Bertsch, Matthias (2002) "Can you identify the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, compared with the Berlin or New York Philarmonic?," in Forum Acusticum Sevilla 2002 (European Acoustics Association, Sevilla) 2002, p. MUS-01-008.
Abstract: Hundreds of participants, professionals and non-musicians, within and outside of Vienna, listened to 21 pairs of sound examples and tried to identify the recording of the Vienna Philharmonic . The final results shows that the total group indeed heard Viennese characteristics in 14 examples. In 9 cases these characteristics have been assigned correctly to the Viennese orchestra. Since longer examples were identified more accurately than shorter ones, the playing style was found to be the major criterion for judgment, rather than the timbre. The study concludes that listeners can indeed hear differences, but interpretation style can be misleading, and sound characteristics can generally only be identified by highly-experienced listeners.